Twelve Great Deeds of Buddha's Life

Life of Sakyamuni - in drawing ( I )

Life of Sakyamuni - in drawing ( II )

如来十二行

释迦传画册(一)

释迦传画册(

     

Twelve Great Deeds of Buddha's Life

如来十二行

Tibetan Buddhist tradition divides the life of Buddha into 12 glorious events. These defining incidents of the Buddha's life are given visual form in densely packed sequences narrated in a special “thangka” (genre of paintings) known as the "Twelve Great Deeds of Buddha's Life" (Tib. Dzad pa chu nyi).

如来十二行(又称十二相成道/十二宏化)是释迦牟尼佛以化身示现娑婆世界的十二件大事,在一张唐卡内以美术形式展示。

     

1. His Promise to Take Birth in the Human Realm

 

Before Buddha was born into this world as Shakyamuni, he was a bodhisattva in the Tushita heaven. With enhanced great compassion, he vowed to manifest himself in the sentient world and relieve people from their sufferings.

 

一、兜率说法


释迦牟尼佛在未成佛前一世生于兜率天,以大菩萨身份说法。度众生因缘成熟,决定化身降生人间,授离苦得乐的教法。
 

     

2. Queen Maya's Dream

 

Bodhisattva selected King Shudhodhana and Queen Mayadevi, the ruler of the Shakya clan as his future parents.  This generous couple was well known throughout the land for their just and noble bearing.

His descent from the Tushita heaven occurred as a dream to Mayadevi. In this dream, a six tusks white elephant approached and touched her right side with its trunk. Through this symbolic act, the bodhisattva entered the womb of Mayadevi and impregnated her.

二、乘象入胎


菩萨选了万物复苏的月圆之夜;于印度的迦毗罗卫国降生,父亲为释迦族的净饭王,母亲为摩耶夫人。
化身为小六牙白象,自母亲的右肋入胎。此时,正在熟睡的摩耶夫人梦见在众天神的赞美中受胎。

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

3. Birth of the Buddha

 

Queen was pregnant and would soon give birth. According to the tradition, women had to return to her parents’ place to have the baby delivered.  On her way home, the Queen took a break at Lumbini Park.  She was holding onto a branch with her right hand when the prince was born.

Immediately upon his birth, the prince  stood up and took seven steps, each a lotus sprang up.   When he made the seventh step, with one finger pointing to the heaven and another to the ground, he said: "Up in the heaven and down on earth, I am the most respected."  Once, the earth moved with the sun shining luminous and warm, covered entirely the great trichiliocosms.  Dragon Gods from above flowed two crystalline and pleasant streams upon the prince.

King Suddhodana gave the baby name Siddhartha, meaning “the accomplisher of aims”.

  

三、太子降生

 

按照古印度的习俗,外嫁女要回娘家生产,临近菩萨诞生之日,摩耶夫人启程返回天臂城。途经蓝毗尼园稍作休息,在 优悠缓步的摩耶夫人,将手轻放在无忧树上,这时太子自右胁降生。

 

太子周行七步,步步生莲花,一手指天、一手指地说:『天上天下,唯我独尊。』一时之间大地震动,放大光明,普照三千大千世界。龙王自虚空降下温凉甘露,灌沐太子的金身。

 

净饭王为太子命名为悉达多,意思是『一切功德皆得成就』。

 

     

4. A Youth Dedicated to the Mastery of Learning and Athletics


Queen Mayadevi passed away seven days after giving birth to the prince.  Therefore the baby-prince was brought up by aunt Mahapajapati. 

 

As the Prince, Siddhartha was provided with the finest upbringing and his life had ample quantities. He received the finest education and mastered all lessons taught.  His great compassion raised when he came across a falcon killing a python, he realized Mahamundra since he understood the sufferings of all beings. 

 

In his younger years, he excelled in sports and other contests of skill. The vigorous training befitted the grooming of a future monarch. He was said to particularly excel on the horse and archery.

 

 

 

四、太子习艺

 

摩耶夫人于产下太子后七日便离世,太子由姨母摩诃波阇波提抚育。

 

七岁,开始学习四吠陀,五因明等学问。太子见老鹰捕食蛇,心生悲悯,观察到众生的苦恼,而入禅定,得入四禅。

 

十二岁,悉达多聪慧过人,老师们所教授的学问、技艺、武术,太子很快就能得心应手,尤以骑射最为优异。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

5. The Skillful Conduct of Worldly Affairs


Having been warned by the court astrologers that his son may well give it all up and choose the path of meditation, Buddha's father tried his best to shield him from the harsh realities of life.

King wanted his little prince be a King than an enlightened one, so three palaces the spring, summer and rainfall were built.  His marriage with Yasodhara was arranged by the royal family.

五、宫中娱乐
 

因太子出生时,曾有占相师预言太子若非成为贤王即是出家成为觉者,净饭王为防止悉达多出家而王位无人继承,便想要以诸种享乐将太子留在宫中。净饭王为悉达多太子迎娶耶输陀罗为妻,又兴建寒、暑、雨三时宫殿,希望以无忧无虑的生活让太子生起恋栈之心。

 

 

 

6. The Four Encounters


Once the Prince’s visit his regional communities outside the four gates,  encountered the sufferings of aged, illness and death. The prince eventually met a meditation-practitioner who drowns in his eternal happiness. King failed to shield his son from the harsh realities of life. The grown up prince wanted to seek a proper way to ensure one’s life of transcendence sufferings.

六、游观四门


在四次出城的游历中,悉达多太子分别在东、南、西、北四个城门外,看到老人、病人、死者以及清净的修行者,太子遂开始思考生命的方向。
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. The Renunciation of Worldly Life

One night Siddhartha confirmed his determination and headed to his path of enlightenment. He left his imperial family, throne and wealth wandered into the wood. At dawn he reached a village where he shaved head to cheek, changed into simple robe and sent his lad to inform his parents about his decision. He promised he would come back to his clans and deliver the noble truth to each and every one when he reached his enlightenment.
 

七、削发出家
 
在一个月明之夜,毅然抛弃王位和财富,离别妻子,悄悄离开王宫,决心到深山僻林中去寻求解脱人生痛苦的真理。黎明,太子抵达罗摩村自剃须发,披上袈裟,并遣侍者车匿回城向净饭王报告他已出家,并誓言:『若成道后,必定回来教化大众出离生死之苦。』。
 

 

 

 

8. The Six Years of Austerities

Wandering in his search for enlightenment, Buddha came to a pleasant hermitage by a lovely stream, where, he joined five mendicants in a way of discipline based on progressively severe fasting. He ate a single grain of rice everyday the first two years, drank little water everyday for the second two years, and took nothing at all during the last two years.

 

Consequently, he became so skinny his bones stuck out like a row of spindles, he needed to surpass this situation and thanked the shepherd girl who offered him a cup of rice-germ milk. He then moved on until he landed at huge Bodhi Tree where he settled and vowed he would not move unless he attained enlightenment.
 

八、林中苦行


悉达多出家之后,隐居林中与五位隐士结伴修苦行,首两年只吃一麻一米,再两年只喝一点水,后两年不饮不食;形体枯瘦,仍未见道。在接受牧羊女供养的乳糜后,调养色身,悉达多决心要离开偏向于苦或偏向于乐的修行方式。

太子来到附近大菩提树下,以吉祥草敷设金刚座,东向端身正坐,发誓:「我今若不证得无上大菩提,宁可碎此身,终不起此座!」
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

9. The Defeat of Mara


Hearing this solemn vow, Mara, the king of evil beings is the manifestation of death and desire, felt threatened. Mara's power over sentient beings originated from their attachment to sensuous pleasures and the consequent fear of death which lead to intense suffering. Enlightenment would free Siddhartha from Mara's control and provide an opportunity for others to free themselves also by emulating him.

 

So he sent his three young daughters to seduce the prince, who had no response.  The Mara sent his troop with arms to frighten the prince who did not even wink his eye.


Meditating under the Bodhi Tree for forty nine days all the bewitched obscured by gone, the insight of the prince was crystal clear and brightly pure.

九、降伏诸魔

悉达多来到菩提树下静坐,誓愿『不成正觉不离此座』。

 

此愿一发,魔王波旬大为惊慌,即让三名魔女诱惑太子,后又派遣魔军以箭攻击,见太子仍寂然不为所动,魔子们惶恐逃窜而走。

 

正当佛陀在菩提树下将成道时,大地震动,放大光明,隐蔽了魔宫。佛陀就这样在树下静坐四十九天,克服了内外的种种「魔障」。

     

10. Victory of Bodhicitta

That was a full moon night in May, the Prince went into deep meditation. As the morning star appeared, he become an Enlightened One, Buddha. Calmly the seated Buddha touched the earth with his right hand.

 

The earth thundered like saying “I am his witness”. Buddha exclaimed “How wonderful! All beings can become Buddhas!” if all the immoral thoughts and attachments that worrying you be gone for good, delivered yourselves from sufferings of the cyclic existence and realized nirvana then you become Enlightenment.
 

十、证菩提觉


悉达多端身正坐、摄心思维四十九天后,夜睹天上明星,而豁然了悟。他看到了生命的缘起,受苦的原因 ,以及离苦处方得乐的方法

 

这时已成正等正觉,是时大地震动,彷佛在说我见证这庄严的一刻。佛陀说:『奇哉!奇哉!一切大地众生皆有如来智慧德相,只因妄想执着不能证得。』指出一切众生皆有佛性, 若能够去除妄想烦恼,便证得无上菩提。
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

11. The Proclamation of the Teachings

As an enlightened one Buddha at his deep meditation gave a teaching on “Avataṃsaka-sūtra”. Beside he ascended to Trayatrimsa heaven and gave his passed away mother Queen Mahadevi a discourse. Buddhas, Buddhisattvas, devas Kings of Heavens, deities and gods from all dimensions assembled, applaud and delighted in Dharma joy.

 

Devas incited Buddha to propagate his teachings and ensure all beings have the chance to develop their awareness.

 

Buddha therefore started to preach his teachings and left the Bodhi Tree, he first went up to Sarnath near Varanasi where he met the five mendicants with whom he had previously traversed the path of asceticism. Hearing his discourse, the Four Noble truths, they became his first disciples.  Hence, Buddha, Dharma, Sangha have formed a Triple Gems for us to pay homage and treasure with. Buddha with his 1250 disciples traveled around one third of India and his teachings covered the same.
 

Buddha broke down the scriptures of external paths and turned their followers to his monastic order. With the highest respect and honor preaching Dharma entitled the turns of Dharma-cakra. That means Dharma will roll on and on as long as Triple Gems exist.

十一、广转法轮


佛陀成正等正觉后在定中宣说大方广佛华严经、在忉利天为亡母摩耶夫人讲经说法,十方三世诸佛、菩萨、天龙八部、护法鬼神众皆来集会,安住法悦。


在梵天的劝请下,佛陀决定将佛法弘扬于娑婆世界。
 

离开菩提树首先扺达鹿苑,巧偶林中苦修的五位同道,于是,为他们讲四圣谛,以苦集灭道开示他们,他们得闻佛法,决定随佛陀修学,成为比丘,自此佛法僧三宝具足矣。

 

此后,佛陀率领一千二百五十位弟子,周游各地,宣讲佛法,碾破异端邪说。释迦牟尼佛推动正法之轮,弘扬佛法,称为「转法轮」。佛陀弘法利生,平等慈悲 ,身教言教深入民间,自成宗教,佛法僧三宝传承至今不絶,普度无量众生。

 

 

 

12. The Passage into Parinirvana

For the sake of living beings. Buddha had given us the Sutra, Vinaya, Adhidharma (Doctrine, Discipline and Discussion) and lots of teachings and practices.

Buddha had passionately comforted those sad and tears, and given us the hope of bright future. Numerous impressed stories and legends of inspiration were recorded and told are the foot print of Buddha that every Buddhist would spend their life time to follow. The linage of Great lamas and generations of elders monk are the Deans who carry forwards Buddha’s virtues, leaders of pilgrim and patterns for devotee to cultivate.

十二、双林入灭


佛陀为教化难调服的众生弘法,送给我们经、律、论三藏和教诫,加上无数的修行方法,留给我们代代的贤圣活佛,大德高僧。佛陀抚慰了多少悲痛哀伤,启动了多少光明希望,一段段感人的故事,一篇篇应化的事迹。

 

佛陀八十岁时,自知将不久于人世,离开王舍城,于二月十五日来到拘尸那迦附近的娑罗双树下,头朝北,右手支脸,左手放置身上,双足并拢,吉祥卧,面向西,进入大般涅盘之境。

 

此时,树林忽然变白,犹如白鹤。佛陀入灭前嘱咐弟子阿难:

 

「已成者皆灭,不可放逸,要勤修我法。吾灭后以戒为师,于法精进,安住于四念处」。

 

与文殊师利等言:「诸善男子,自修其心,慎莫放逸。」遂于中夜进入涅盘。时天雨香花,日月无光,昊天罔亟。如来涅盘后,积诸香木,行荼毗礼,取得舍利,分为八分,分送各处,由阿育王起塔供养。

  
Traveling great distances to disseminate his teachings, Buddha finally reached the city of Kushinagara. With his disciples in a grove, he lay there, reclining on his right side, facing west, with his head supported by his hand.  Shakyamuni realized clearly that death was approaching.

“Those established will vanish.  Don’t be lazy, keen on practice.  When we are apart Sila will be your guidance and settle down on the Four Earnest Contemplations”  and

“My dear disciples, purify one’s mind, there will be no granting for indulgence.” are the last words he gave to his disciples. Towards midnight of the same day, the event known in Buddhist terminology as the Parinirvana, or "Final Nirvana," took place. It was a full-moon night and also his eightieth birthday. The Enlightened One passed through progressively higher planes of meditation until he attained entry into Parinirvana.

One scripture gives an eloquent description of the scene: "The trees burst into full bloom out of season, bent down over the Buddha, and showered his body with their flowers, as if to do him supreme honor. There were heavenly flowers that rained down and scattered over the venerable one. . . . And the world was like a mountain whose summit has been shattered by a thunderbolt; it was like the sky without the moon." Perfume oil, aloe wood and sandalwood were prepared for the cremation. Afterwards the relics were divided into eight shares and placed for worship in eight pagodas built by King Asoka.